*BASH User Commands Ubuntu 10.04.4 LTS Server coreutils
MYSQLDUMP(1)                 MySQL Database System                MYSQLDUMP(1)

       mysqldump - a database backup program

       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

       The mysqldump client is a backup program originally written by Igor
       Romanenko. It can be used to dump a database or a collection of
       databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server (not necessarily
       a MySQL server). The dump typically contains SQL statements to create
       the table, populate it, or both. However, mysqldump can also be used to
       generate files in CSV, other delimited text, or XML format.

       mysqldump requires at least the SELECT privilege for dumped tables,
       SHOW VIEW for dumped views, TRIGGER for dumped triggers, and LOCK
       TABLES if the --single-transaction option is not used. Certain options
       might require other privileges as noted in the option descriptions.

       To reload a dump file, you must have the same privileges needed to
       create each of the dumped objects by issuing CREATE statements

       mysqldump output can include ALTER DATABASE statements that change the
       database collation. These may be used when dumping stored programs to
       preserve their character encodings. To reload a dump file containing
       such statements, the ALTER privilege for the affected database is

       If you are performing a backup on the server and your tables all are
       MyISAM tables, you can also use mysqlhotcopy for this purpose.

       There are in general three ways to use mysqldump--in order to dump a
       set of one or more tables, a set of one or more complete databases, or
       an entire MySQL server--as shown here:

           shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]
           shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ...
           shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       To dump entire databases, do not name any tables following db_name, or
       use the --databases or --all-databases option.

       mysqldump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database by default. As
       of MySQL 5.1.38, mysqldump dumps INFORMATION_SCHEMA if you name it
       explicitly on the command line, although you must also use the
       --skip-lock-tables option. Before 5.1.38, mysqldump silently ignores
       INFORMATION_SCHEMA even if you name it explicitly on the command line.

       Before MySQL 5.1.64, mysqldump does not dump the general_log or
       slow_query_log tables for dumps of the mysql database. As of 5.1.64,
       the dump includes statements to recreate those tables so that they are
       not missing after reloading the dump file. Log table contents are not

       In MySQL Cluster NDB 7.1.7 and later, the ndbinfo information database
       is ignored and not dumped by mysqldump.

       To see a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports,
       execute mysqldump --help.

       Some mysqldump options are shorthand for groups of other options:

       o   Use of --opt is the same as specifying --add-drop-table,
           --add-locks, --create-options, --disable-keys, --extended-insert,
           --lock-tables, --quick, and --set-charset. All of the options that
           --opt stands for also are on by default because --opt is on by

       o   Use of --compact is the same as specifying --skip-add-drop-table,
           --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments, --skip-disable-keys, and
           --skip-set-charset options.

       To reverse the effect of a group option, uses its --skip-xxx form
       (--skip-opt or --skip-compact). It is also possible to select only part
       of the effect of a group option by following it with options that
       enable or disable specific features. Here are some examples:

       o   To select the effect of --opt except for some features, use the
           --skip option for each feature. To disable extended inserts and
           memory buffering, use --opt --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick.
           (Actually, --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick is sufficient
           because --opt is on by default.)

       o   To reverse --opt for all features except index disabling and table
           locking, use --skip-opt --disable-keys --lock-tables.

       When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option,
       order is important because options are processed first to last. For
       example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the
       intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.

       mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can
       retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before
       dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping
       large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick option (or
       --opt, which enables --quick). The --opt option (and hence --quick) is
       enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering, use --skip-quick.

       If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be
       reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the --opt or
       --extended-insert option. Use --skip-opt instead.

           mysqldump from MySQL 5.1.21 cannot be used to create dumps from
           MySQL server 5.1.20 and older. This issue is fixed in MySQL 5.1.22.
           (Bug #30123)

       mysqldump supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysqldump] and [client] groups of an option
       file.  mysqldump also supports the options for processing option files
       described at Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-
       File Handling".

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --add-drop-database

           Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE
           statement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the
           --all-databases or --databases option because no CREATE DATABASE
           statements are written unless one of those options is specified.

       o   --add-drop-table

           Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       o   --add-drop-trigger

           Add a DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER statement.

               This option is supported only by mysqldump as supplied with
               MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.38, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.19, MySQL
               Cluster NDB 7.1.8, and later MySQL Cluster releases. It is not
               available when using MySQL 5.1.

       o   --add-locks

           Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
           statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
           reloaded. See Section, "Speed of INSERT Statements".

       o   --all-databases, -A

           Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
           --databases option and naming all the databases on the command

       o   --all-tablespaces, -Y

           Adds to a table dump all SQL statements needed to create any
           tablespaces used by an NDBCLUSTER table. This information is not
           otherwise included in the output from mysqldump. This option is
           currently relevant only to MySQL Cluster tables.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.1.6.

       o   --allow-keywords

           Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by
           prefixing each column name with the table name.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this option can
           be used to select which interface is employed when connecting to
           the MySQL server.

           This option is supported only in the version of mysqldump that is
           supplied with MySQL Cluster, beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB
           6.3.4. It is not available in standard MySQL 5.1 releases.

       o   --character-sets-dir=path

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --comments, -i

           Write additional information in the dump file such as program
           version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by
           default. To suppress this additional information, use

       o   --compact

           Produce more compact output. This option enables the
           --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments,
           --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-set-charset options.

               Prior to MySQL 5.1.21, this option did not create valid SQL if
               the database dump contained views. The recreation of views
               requires the creation and removal of temporary tables and this
               option suppressed the removal of those temporary tables. As a
               workaround, use --compact with the --add-drop-table option and
               then manually adjust the dump file.

       o   --compatible=name

           Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems
           or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
           mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
           no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use
           several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same
           meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL
           mode. See Section 5.1.7, "Server SQL Modes".

           This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It
           only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for
           making dump output more compatible. For example,
           --compatible=oracle does not map data types to Oracle types or use
           Oracle comment syntax.

           This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With
           older servers, it does nothing.

       o   --complete-insert, -c

           Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           both support compression.

       o   --create-options

           Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE

       o   --databases, -B

           Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name
           argument on the command line as a database name and following names
           as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as
           database names.  CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are included in
           the output before each new database.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           'd:t:o,file_name'. The default value is

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits. This
           option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.

       o   --debug-info

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.14.

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.5,
           "Character Set Configuration". If no character set is specified,
           mysqldump uses utf8, and earlier versions use latin1.

           Prior to MySQL 5.1.38, this option has no effect for output data
           files produced by using the --tab option. See the description for
           that option.

       o   --delayed-insert

           Write INSERT DELAYED statements rather than INSERT statements.

       o   --delete-master-logs

           On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending a
           PURGE BINARY LOGS statement to the server after performing the dump
           operation. This option automatically enables --master-data.

       o   --disable-keys, -K

           For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER
           TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name
           ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file faster
           because the indexes are created after all rows are inserted. This
           option is effective only for nonunique indexes of MyISAM tables. It
           has no effect for other tables.

       o   --dump-date

           If the --comments option is given, mysqldump produces a comment at
           the end of the dump of the following form:

               -- Dump completed on DATE

           However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to
           appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical.
           --dump-date and --skip-dump-date control whether the date is added
           to the comment. The default is --dump-date (include the date in the
           comment).  --skip-dump-date suppresses date printing. This option
           was added in MySQL 5.1.23.

       o   --events, -E

           Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the
           output. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.8.

       o   --extended-insert, -e

           Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists.
           This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the
           file is reloaded.

       o   --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=...,
           --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

           These options are used with the --tab option and have the same
           meaning as the corresponding FIELDS clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE.
           See Section 13.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o   --first-slave

           Deprecated. Use --lock-all-tables instead.  --first-slave is
           removed in MySQL 5.5.

       o   --flush-logs, -F

           Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This
           option requires the RELOAD privilege. If you use this option in
           combination with the --all-databases option, the logs are flushed
           for each database dumped. The exception is when using
           --lock-all-tables or --master-data: In this case, the logs are
           flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are
           locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at
           exactly the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with
           either --lock-all-tables or --master-data.

       o   --flush-privileges

           Add a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement to the dump output after dumping
           the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump
           contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on
           the data in the mysql database for proper restoration. This option
           was added in MySQL 5.1.12.

       o   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

           One use for this option is to cause mysqldump to continue executing
           even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because the
           definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without
           --force, mysqldump exits with an error message. With --force,
           mysqldump prints the error message, but it also writes an SQL
           comment containing the view definition to the dump output and
           continues executing.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host
           is localhost.

       o   --hex-blob

           Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc'
           becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY,
           the BLOB types, and BIT.

       o   --ignore-table=db_name.tbl_name

           Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the
           database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this
           option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore

       o   --insert-ignore

           Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.

       o   --lines-terminated-by=...

           This option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning
           as the corresponding LINES clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See
           Section 13.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o   --lock-all-tables, -x

           Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring
           a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option
           automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.

       o   --lock-tables, -l

           For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before
           dumping them. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to permit
           concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For transactional
           tables such as InnoDB, --single-transaction is a much better option
           than --lock-tables because it does not need to lock the tables at

           Because --lock-tables locks tables for each database separately,
           this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are
           logically consistent between databases. Tables in different
           databases may be dumped in completely different states.

       o   --log-error=file_name

           Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The
           default is to do no logging. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.18.

       o   --master-data[=value]

           Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a
           dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of
           the master. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO
           statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and
           position) of the dumped server. These are the master server
           coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you
           load the dump file into the slave.

           If the option value is 2, the CHANGE MASTER TO statement is written
           as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no effect
           when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the
           statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when the
           dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default
           value is 1.

           This option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must
           be enabled.

           The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It
           also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction also
           is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only
           for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the description
           for --single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens
           at the exact moment of the dump.

           It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave
           of the master. To do this, use the following procedure on the
           existing slave:

            1. Stop the slave's SQL thread and get its current status:

                   mysql> STOP SLAVE SQL_THREAD;
                   mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS;

            2. From the output of the SHOW SLAVE STATUS statement, the binary
               log coordinates of the master server from which the new slave
               should start replicating are the values of the
               Relay_Master_Log_File and Exec_Master_Log_Pos fields. Denote
               those values as file_name and file_pos.

            3. Dump the slave server:

                   shell> mysqldump --master-data=2 --all-databases > dumpfile

               Using --master-data=2 works only if binary logging has been
               enabled on the slave. Otherwise, mysqldump fails with the error
               Binlogging on server not active. In this case you must handle
               any locking issues in another manner, using one or more of
               --add-locks, --lock-tables, --lock-all-tables, or
               --single-transaction, as required by your application and

            4. Restart the slave:

                   mysql> START SLAVE;

            5. On the new slave, load the dump file:

                   shell> mysql < dumpfile

            6. On the new slave, set the replication coordinates to those of
               the master server obtained earlier:

                   mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO
                       -> MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'file_name', MASTER_LOG_POS = file_pos;

               The CHANGE MASTER TO statement might also need other
               parameters, such as MASTER_HOST to point the slave to the
               correct master server host. Add any such parameters as

       o   --no-autocommit

           Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET
           autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements.

       o   --no-create-db, -n

           This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE statements that are
           otherwise included in the output if the --databases or
           --all-databases option is given.

       o   --no-create-info, -t

           Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped

               This option does not not exclude statements creating log file
               groups or tablespaces from mysqldump output; in MySQL 5.1.14
               and later, you can use the --no-tablespaces option for this

       o   --no-data, -d

           Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table
           contents). This is useful if you want to dump only the CREATE TABLE
           statement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of
           the table by loading the dump file).

       o   --no-set-names, -N

           This has the same effect as --skip-set-charset.

       o   --no-tablespaces, -y

           This option suppresses all CREATE LOGFILE GROUP and CREATE
           TABLESPACE statements in the output of mysqldump.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.1.14.

       o   --opt

           This option is shorthand. It is the same as specifying
           --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
           --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should
           give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be
           reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.

           The --opt option is enabled by default. Use --skip-opt to disable
           it.  See the discussion at the beginning of this section for
           information about selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the
           options affected by --opt.

       o   --order-by-primary

           Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first
           unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping
           a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make the
           dump operation take considerably longer.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysqldump prompts for

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL

       o   --quick, -q

           This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump
           to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather
           than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory
           before writing it out.

       o   --quote-names, -Q

           Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names)
           within "`" characters. If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled,
           identifiers are quoted within """ characters. This option is
           enabled by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but
           this option should be given after any option such as --compatible
           that may enable --quote-names.

       o   --replace

           Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements. This option
           was added in MySQL 5.1.3.

       o   --result-file=file_name, -r file_name

           Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on
           Windows to prevent newline "\n" characters from being converted to
           "\r\n" carriage return/newline sequences. The result file is
           created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error
           occurs while generating the dump.

       o   --routines, -R

           Include stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped
           databases in the output. Use of this option requires the SELECT
           privilege for the mysql.proc table. The output generated by using
           --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements
           to re-create the routines. However, these statements do not include
           attributes such as the routine creation and modification
           timestamps. This means that when the routines are reloaded, they
           will be created with the timestamps equal to the reload time.

           If you require routines to be re-created with their original
           timestamp attributes, do not use --routines. Instead, dump and
           reload the contents of the mysql.proc table directly, using a MySQL
           account that has appropriate privileges for the mysql database.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.1.2. Before that, stored routines
           are not dumped. Routine DEFINER values are not dumped until MySQL
           5.1.8. This means that before 5.1.8, when routines are reloaded,
           they will be created with the definer set to the reloading user. If
           you require routines to be re-created with their original definer,
           dump and load the contents of the mysql.proc table directly as
           described earlier.

           Prior to MySQL 5.1.62, this option had no effect when used together
           with the --xml option. (Bug #11760384, Bug #52792)

       o   --set-charset

           Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is
           enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use

       o   --single-transaction

           This option sets the transaction isolation mode to REPEATABLE READ
           and sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before
           dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as
           InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database
           at the time when START TRANSACTION was issued without blocking any

           When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB
           tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or
           MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change

           While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid
           dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no
           other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE,
           consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of
           them on a table to be dumped can cause the SELECT that is performed
           by mysqldump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect
           contents or fail.

           The --single-transaction option and the --lock-tables option are
           mutually exclusive because LOCK TABLES causes any pending
           transactions to be committed implicitly.

           This option is not supported for MySQL Cluster tables; the results
           cannot be guaranteed to be consistent due to the fact that the
           NDBCLUSTER storage engine supports only the READ_COMMITTED
           transaction isolation level. You should always use NDB backup and
           restore instead.

           To dump large tables, you should combine the --single-transaction
           option with --quick.

       o   --skip-comments

           See the description for the --comments option.

       o   --skip-opt

           See the description for the --opt option.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section, "SSL Command Options".

       o   --tab=path, -T path

           Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped
           table, mysqldump creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the
           CREATE TABLE statement that creates the table, and the server
           writes a tbl_name.txt file that contains its data. The option value
           is the directory in which to write the files.

               This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the
               same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE
               privilege, and the server must have permission to write files
               in the directory that you specify.
           By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters
           between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
           format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and
           --lines-terminated-by options.

           As of MySQL 5.1.38, column values are converted to the character
           set specified by the --default-character-set option. Prior to
           5.1.38 or if no such option is present, values are dumped using the
           binary character set. In effect, there is no character set
           conversion. If a table contains columns in several character sets,
           the output data file will as well and you may not be able to reload
           the file correctly.

       o   --tables

           Override the --databases or -B option.  mysqldump regards all name
           arguments following the option as table names.

       o   --triggers

           Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option
           is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers.

       o   --tz-utc

           This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded
           between servers in different time zones.  mysqldump sets its
           connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the
           dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and
           reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination
           servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in
           different time zones.  --tz-utc also protects against changes due
           to daylight saving time.  --tz-utc is enabled by default. To
           disable it, use --skip-tz-utc. This option was added in MySQL

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

       o   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       o   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       o   --where='where_condition', -w 'where_condition'

           Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around
           the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other
           characters that are special to your command interpreter.



       o   --xml, -X

           Write dump output as well-formed XML.

           NULL, 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column named column_name, the
           NULL value, an empty string, and the string value 'NULL' are
           distinguished from one another in the output generated by this
           option as follows.

           |Value:                | XML Representation:             |
           |NULL (unknown value)  | <field name="column_name"       |
           |                      | xsi:nil="true" />               |
           |'' (empty string)     | <field                          |
           |                      | name="column_name"></field>     |
           |'NULL' (string value) | <field                          |
           |                      | name="column_name">NULL</field> |
           Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, the output from the mysql client when
           run using the --xml option also follows the preceding rules. (See
           the section called "MYSQL OPTIONS".)

           Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, XML output from mysqldump includes the
           XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <database name="world">
               <table_structure name="City">
               <field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" />
               <field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" />
               <key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID"
               Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" />
               <options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079"
               Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951"
               Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080"
               Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02"
               Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" />
               <table_data name="City">
               <field name="ID">1</field>
               <field name="Name">Kabul</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">AFG</field>
               <field name="District">Kabol</field>
               <field name="Population">1780000</field>
               <field name="ID">4079</field>
               <field name="Name">Rafah</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">PSE</field>
               <field name="District">Rafah</field>
               <field name="Population">92020</field>

       Prior to MySQL 5.1.62, this option prevented the --routines option from
       working correctly--that is, no stored routines, triggers, or events
       could be dumped in XML format. (Bug #11760384, Bug #52792)

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value

       o   max_allowed_packet

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default is 24MB, the maximum is 1GB.

       o   net_buffer_length

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication.
           When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the
           --extended-insert or --opt option), mysqldump creates rows up to
           net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should
           also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server
           is at least this large.

       A common use of mysqldump is for making a backup of an entire database:

           shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql

       You can load the dump file back into the server like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

       Or like this:

           shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data
       from one MySQL server to another:

           shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

           shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

       To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

       For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (using FLUSH
       TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this
       lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and the
       lock is released. If long updating statements are running when the
       FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those
       statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and does not
       disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that
       the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of execution time), the
       initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as "roll-forward," when you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 5.2.4, "The Binary Log") or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql


           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2
                         > all_databases.sql

       The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used
       simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online
       backup suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are
       stored using the InnoDB storage engine.

       For more information on making backups, see Section 7.2, "Database
       Backup Methods", and Section 7.3, "Example Backup and Recovery

       If you encounter problems backing up views, please read the section
       that covers restrictions on views which describes a workaround for
       backing up views when this fails due to insufficient privileges. See
       Section E.4, "Restrictions on Views".

       Copyright (C) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at

       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).

MySQL 5.1                         11/04/2013                      MYSQLDUMP(1)